PASE: Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England

Domesday

[Image: Excerpt from the Domesday Book]
[Image: Durham Liber Vitae, folio 38r (extract)]

PASE Domesday: Help

 

Search for a person

The ‘Name/Description’ filter function searches the first, third and fourth columns of the table of contents, and filters out only those rows of the table which match the search criterea.

So, for example, a search for ‘Wulfstan’ will return all the rows relating to persons named Wulfstan, or which contain Wulfstan in the title (including some of the men of Bishop Wulfstan); a search for ‘bishop’ will return all the rows with the word ‘bishop’ or ‘archbishop’ in the Description column; a search for ‘Wulfstan, bishop’ will return only ‘Wulfstan 55: Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester’.

Once the table is filtered, click on the Name column to go to the start of the relevant profile, which contains contextual information about the name in question and, at the bottom of the page, lists all the persons of that name who have been identified; or click on the Person column to go directly to an individual’s profile.

Note that the Description column gives a person’s name and title in that order, separated by a comma: for example, search for ‘Edward, king …’, not ‘King Edward’, ‘William, king …’, ‘Harold, earl’ not ‘Earl Harold’, and so on. The dataset includes some names which contain non-standard characters, including Æ, æ, ç, é, and è. The letter thorn, which occurs in many Old English and Old Norse names, is rendered ‘Th’ or ‘th’ as appropriate.

Search for a place

The ‘Location’ filter function searches the ‘Vill’ and ‘Shire’ columns in the PASE Domesday database, and filters out only those rows in the table of contents which contain people connected with the places matching the search criterea. The function is designed to present choices to help refine searches as they are entered into the box.

So, for example, a search for ‘Kingston’ in the Vill column will generate a list of places which contain this placename, including Kingston Lisle, Kingston on Soar, Kingston Seymour, Kingston upon Thames as well as just Kingston itself. Click on any of these and click filter to generate a list of landholders connected with these places. Note, however, that vills named just ‘Kingston’ occur in six shires (Cambridgeshire, Dorset, Hampshire, Nottinghamshire, Suffolk and Norfolk). To select Kingston in Cambridgeshire, type Kingston into the Vill box, and Cambridgeshire in the shire box (which will autocomplete).

Once the table is filtered, click on the Persons column to go directly to the profiles of people named in connection with the place in question in Domesday Book. Once there, use standard internet page search functions (Control F for Windows, Command F for Macs), enter the place name and click search to locate the occurrences of the place in question within profiles.

 

Sorting the table of contents

Each of the columns in the table of contents can be sorted in ascending or descending order by clicking the column title. For an explanation of the column headings, see ‘Forms of landholding’ below, and ‘Abbreviations’ below.

 

The functionality of the profiles

The structure of the profiles

For each person named in Domesday Book, there is a ‘Name’ and a ‘Profile’ webpage. The ‘Name’ pages contain material relevant to all the people bearing a particular name. This includes a ‘Discussion of the Name’, which provides a short a treatment of the linguistic origins and etymology of the name, together with observations concerning its frequency in the Anglo-Saxon corpus, and the broad chronology of its use, followed by a bibliography of published work relating to the name in question. The next section comprises a list of the variant spellings of the name in Domesday Book and satellite texts (that is, texts external but closely related to Domesday Book), and a list of the variant forms spellings of the name in modern editions. The abbreviations used in this section are listed below. For each name, there is a distribution map of all the occurrences of the name in Domesday Book; and tables listing all the occurrences of the name in Domesday Book. The section concludes with a list with hyperlinks to all the people bearing the name in question who have been identified. A table of contents is permanently visible on the left hand side of the page to facilitate navigation.

The ‘Profile’ webpage contains information relating to particular people. This consists of four main elements: a short summary of what is known about the person in question; a distribution map of the person’s property and lordships; a tabular list of property and lordships associated with this name in DB; a prose discussion which explains each identification and, where possible, identifies the person in records other than Domesday Book; and a bibliography. A table of contents is again permanently visible on the left hand side of the page to facilitate navigation.

The maps

The plus and minus signs in the top-right-hand corner of the maps make it possible to zoom in and out. The legend in the top-left-hand corner presents a series of choices. There are four different options for the base map or background, labelled Hillshade, Open Street Map, Satellite, and Simple. Four overlays can be added or removed from view in any combination: Historic shire borders, Rivers, Shire names, and Domesday boroughs. The seven forms of landholding, each represented by different colour dots on the map, can similarly be toggled on or off in any combination; and the size of the dots map can be graduated according the monetary or fiscal value assigned to the corresponding parcel of property in Domesday Book. If any dot on the map is selected by clicking, this generates a pop-up box containing information concerning the place in question.

Forms of landholding

Owing to the complexities of land tenure and lordship before and after the Norman conquest, several people might be associated in different ways with the same parcel of property; and the same person might assume several different forms of landholding and lordship in different places. PASE Domesday differentiates these forms of landholding and lordship as follows:

 

Holder 1066: the person who enjoyed usufruct of (and so the income generated by) the property in 1066.

Lord 1066: the person was the lord of the the person who enjoyed usufruct of the property in 1066.

Lord 2 1066: the person was the second lord of the the person who enjoyed usufruct of the property in 1066 (it was not uncommon for pre-conquest landholders to have more than one lord, though this information is not frequently or consistently recorded in Domesday Book).

TIC 1086 demesne: the person was a tenant-in-chief of the property, and held it in demesne in 1086; that is to say, the person held it directly from the king, and had not enfeoffed or installed any subtenants on the property.

TIC 1086 subtenanted: the person was a tenant-in-chief of the property, but had installed a subtenant there, who would typically enjoy usufruct of the land in return for service.

Subtenant 1086: the person was a subtenant of another lord, a tenant-in-chief, in 1086.

Sub-subtenant 1086: the person was a sub-subtenant (the subtenant of a subtenant) in 1086.

The tables

The Name and Profile sections both contain a series of tables listing the properties associated with particular names or people respectively. There is a separate table for each form of landholding. The rows are sorted by default in the same order in which they occur in Domesday Book. They can be resorted by ascending or descending order within each of the columns by clicking the column titles. The ‘show on map’ function pinpoints where any place listed in the tables occurs in the map.

 

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used throughout:

General

DB: Domesday Book

Fiscal value: the assessment of a piece of property for fiscal purposes, including the geld or land tax. Different assessment systems were used in Domesday. To permit quantification, these are represented as decimal figures using the following equations: a hide = 1; a virgate (a quarter of a hide) = 0.25; a carucate = 1; a bovate (one eighth of a carucate) = 0.125; a sulung = 1; a yoke (a quarter of a sulung) = 0.25; 120 acres = 1.

TRE: ‘Tempore Regis Edwardi’, ‘In the time of King Edward’, usually meaning ‘in 1066’, or more specifically the day on which King Edward was alive and dead (5 January, 1066) in Domesday Book.

TRW: ‘Tempore Regis Willelmi’, ‘In the time of King William’, usually meaning ‘in 1086’, the date of the Domesday survey in Domesday Book

Authors and editors

The names of authors, supplied as three initials within each profile, may be expanded as follows:

APD: Alex Dymond.

CPL: C. P. Lewis.

DWP: Duncan Probert.

KLB: Katherine Blayney.

SDB: Stephen Baxter.

Editorial status

The following conventions apply (for more information, see About)

Editorial stage 1: the property connected with persons of this name is captured in the database, but no attempt has yet been made to identify individual people bearing this name.

Editorial stage 2: a provisional attempt has been made to identify this person, but the material remains to be checked and edited, and the profile remains to be written.

Editorial stage 3: the identification of this person in the database is complete, but their profile has not yet been written.

Editorial stage 4: unedited draft.

Editorial stage 5: completed profile.

Editions

Alecto:Great Domesday Book: Library Edition, ed. A. Williams and R. W. H. Erskine, Alecto Historical Editions (London, 1986–1992); Williams 2000:Little Domesday: Library Edition, ed. A. Williams, Alecto Historical Editions (London, 2000)

DM:The Domesday Monachorum of Christ Church, Canterbury, ed. David C. Douglas (London: Royal Historical Society, 1944)

Exon: Exon Domesday,Libri Censualis Vocati Domesday Book Additamenta, ed. H. Ellis, Record Commission (London, 1816)

Evesham A: P. H. Sawyer, ‘Evesham A, a Domesday Text’, in Worcester Historical Society, Miscellany I(Worcester and London, 1960), pp. 3–36

FBB: ‘The Feudal Book of Baldwin, abbot of Bury St. Edmunds, 1065–1098, contained in the Black Book of the abbey, MS. Mm. iv. 19, fols. 124–43b. (Cambridge University Library)’, inFeudal Documents from the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, ed. D. C. Douglas, British Academy Records of the Social and Economic History of England and Wales, 8 (London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1932), 1–44

IA:An Eleventh-Century Inquisition of St. Augustine’s, Canterbury, ed. Adolphus Ballard, British Academy Records of the Social and Economic History of England and Wales 4 (2) (London, 1920)

ICC:Inqusitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, inInqusitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, nunc primum e manuscripto unico in Bibliotheca Cottoniana asservato typis mandata, subjicitur Inquisitio Eliensis, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton (London: John Murray for the Royal Society of Literature, 1876), 1–96

IE:Inquisitio Eliensis, inInqusitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, nunc primum e manuscripto unico in Bibliotheca Cottoniana asservato typis mandata, subjicitur Inquisitio Eliensis, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton (London: John Murray for the Royal Society of Literature, 1876), 97–195

Phillimore:Domesday Book,ed. J. Morriset al., Phillimore, 34 vols (Chichester, 1974–86)

von Feilitzen: Olof von Feilitzen,The Pre-Conquest Personal Names of Domesday Book, Nomina Germanica 3 (Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells, 1937)

WD or Winton: ‘The Winton Domesday’, ed. and trans. Frank Barlow, inWinchester in the Early Middle Ages: An Edition and Discussion of the Winton Domesday, ed. Martin Biddle, Winchester Studies 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 1–141