PASE: Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England

Domesday

[Image: Excerpt from the Domesday Book]
[Image: Durham Liber Vitae, folio 38r (extract)]

Introduction

PASE Domesday forms part of a long-term research initiative which aims in due course to identify all the landholders named in Domesday Book and to produce a major study of landed society in England in 1066 and 1086. It is principally, therefore, a research tool, but it has been published online in the belief that it will also prove useful to anyone who may be interested in Domesday Book and the people and places it records.

The website comprises two main elements: a database designed to capture every parcel of landed property recorded in Domesday Book and link them to particular people; and profiles of individual landholders. Each profile includes maps, tables, and a prose analysis which explains the rationale behind the identification of a person and, where possible, draws on other records to reconstruct the career of a Domesday landholder.

There are several advantages to publishing the profiles online. The website makes the material freely and readily available; it avoids what would otherwise be prohibitive publishing costs; it allows for the profiles to be augmented and revised as research progresses; and it enhances clarity by allowing users to follow our detailed analytical work in visually intuitive ways.

This second edition of PASE Domesday replaces the first edition, which was published online between 18 August 2010 and 22 July 2016. Advice on how to use PASE Domesday is set out on a separate Help page.

The Research Background

There exists a major body of scholarship concerned with the identification of Domesday landholders. A few examples must suffice here by way of illustration. In 1926 William Corbett published a still valuable analysis of Domesday landed society in 1086, in which he assigned Domesday tenants-in-chief (that is, landholders who held directly from the king) to ‘classes’ based on the annual value of land attributed to them in Domesday Book (Corbett 1926). Over a period of several decades the Victoria County History published translations of the text of almost every Domesday shire, together with introductions which elucidated the identity of many landholders. In the last quarter of the twentieth century Domesday Book was edited and translated twice, in the Phillimore and Alecto editions, both fully indexed and with extensive analytical architecture (Morris et al. 1974–86; Williams and Erskine 1986–92; Williams 2000).

Work on the personal names of pre-Conquest landholders builds on the foundations laid by Olof von Feilitzen (von Feilitzen 1937; see, for example, Dodgson 1985, Fellows Jensen 1968 and 1972, Insley 2003). In a series of pioneering publications Ann Williams revealed the untapped potential for identifying pre-Conquest landholders in Domesday Book (see, for example, Williams 1991 and 2008), work which has inspired studies by many others, including a monograph on the leading secular landholders in 1066 (Clarke 1994). The identification of post-Conquest landholders has been advanced by two major computer-assisted studies: Katharine Keats-Rohan’s prosopographical study of landholders named in Domesday Book and later sources (Keats-Rohan 1999), and John Palmer’s database, which allows complex searches for a range of Domesday statistics, including the estates of specific landholders (Palmer 2010). The latter includes invaluable ‘Notes on the identifications in the translation and indexes’, which explain the identification of several hundred Domesday landholders made in the database itself.

There remains, nevertheless, a great deal of work to do before all the landholders in Domesday Book can be identified. Until recently, further progress has been held up by three insuperable barriers. First, the way in which pre-Conquest landowners are recorded creates major difficulties in identifying individuals. Domesday Book attributes about 29,000 parcels of property to people bearing some 1,200 different personal names. A few landowners are readily identifiable because the text supplies their titles: persons such as Queen Edith and Archbishop Stigand. Most are much more difficult to identify because the text supplies only forenames and does not distinguish one person from another. The problem of homonymy also inhibits the identification of many post-Conquest subtenants, and even some tenants-in-chief. Secondly, the task of gathering and co-ordinating the Domesday evidence has been prohibitively time-consuming: even using modern hard-copy indexes, it can take weeks to locate all the entries relating to a particular name and to assemble the information in a digestible form. Thirdly, in order to interpret the Domesday evidence more securely it is essential to relate it to all the relevant non-Domesday evidence such as chronicles and charters, and until now that evidence has not been assembled in a readily accessible form. Research has therefore tended to proceed piecemeal, focusing on a limited number of mostly large landowners.

Three breakthroughs have helped to transform this field of research. First, Chris Lewis developed a methodology for identifying pre-Conquest landowners in Domesday Book, showing the potential for making many more secure identifications than had been thought feasible (Lewis 1997). Secondly, the revised edition of the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE), published in 2010, made it possible to gather the non-Domesday evidence far more efficiently than hitherto. Thirdly, the first edition of the PASE Domesday database reduced the labour involved in identifying individuals considerably: the simplest cases now take minutes rather than hours, and the most complex are the work of days rather than weeks.

3 Historical Research Methods

The principal historical tasks are to work systematically through Domesday Book, editing each row in the database, and assigning each parcel of land to a person, identified by name and number; and having done so, to produce written profiles of each person, explaining and justifying the identification and summarizing what is known about their career. To accomplish this, the PASE Domesday database has been linked offline to GIS software (ESRI’s ArcMAP), which makes it possible to see, manipulate, and edit data simultaneously in different formats, as maps and tables. The software makes it possible to test hypotheses and reach conclusions efficiently.

Having assembled the Domesday data relating to a particular name, the next step is to assess the factors which allow us to distinguish different individuals bearing the same name, annotating columns in the database with code letters under ten headings:

(i) Frequency: how common was the name in Anglo-Saxon England generally? The PASE database makes it possible to differentiate between rare names (such as Abbud, which occurs once in the pre-Domesday corpus) and common names (such as Ælfric, 204 times).

(ii) Bynames and descriptions: where given, they permit more confident identifications of some of the individuals concerned.

(iii)  Spelling: the orthography of some names occasionally facilitates more confident identification.

(iv)  Geographical proximity: the distribution of estates is a powerful tool in identification, since small landowners are very unlikely to have owned land scattered over great distances.

(v) Successors: in some circumstances William the Conqueror gave all or virtually all the lands of a particular Englishman to one Norman. These are known as ‘antecessorial grants’ because Domesday Book uses the word antecessor (literally ‘predecessor’ or even ‘ancestor’) in a technical sense to describe the Norman’s legitimate English predecessor. It follows that the identity of 1086 landowners can often strengthen the identification of pre-Conquest owners.

(vi)  Lordship: where Domesday records commendation, dependent tenure, or soke, it can help to differentiate pre-Conquest namesakes. Similar principles apply to the identification of post-Conquest subtenants.

(vii)  Joint holders: sometimes pairs of names recur at more than one property, suggesting joint control by kinsmen.

(viii) Estate size: the owners of large manors are likely to have possessed land elsewhere.

(ix)  Other information in Domesday Book:  Domesday Book includes a wealth of contextual and incidental information for some manors, especially about disputes, which can assist in identifying their owners.

(x) Information outside Domesday: a small but significant proportion of Domesday landowners are named in charters, chronicles, or other documentary sources, and some appear as moneyers on coins or as names in inscriptions.

Having taken these ten factors into consideration, a judgement can be made about the overall confidence with which each parcel of land may be assigned to a particular person. This is expressed as an aggregate confidence factor, shown in the penultimate column in the tables in each profile. The nature of the evidence is such that some identifications are more certain than others, so confidence is expressed on a scale from A to E, where A is ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ (91–100 per cent confidence) and E is only ‘marginally more likely than not’ (51–60 per cent confidence); anything below this level of confidence is expressed as F.

Each identified person is assigned a unique number within the PASE corpus of individuals, and a distinctive byname. Where necessary – and this applies to most cases – a byname is invented, usually a topographical name from the individual’s largest landed property, and put in quotation marks to show that it is invented.

It is rare for identifications to be certain; most involve balancing probabilities in order to arrive at conclusions informed by all the evidence. It follows that the identifications made here should not be regarded as definitive, but they are based on reasoning which is consistently and transparently applied, making it possible for others to revisit the judgements made here and apply different assumptions.

Having assigned each parcel of property to individuals bearing any given name, profiles are written for each landowner, as well as a brief discussion of the name itself. For each name, there is a treatment of linguistic origins, etymology, frequency in the Anglo-Saxon corpus, the broad chronology of its use, a bibliography of published work, lists of variant spellings in Domesday Book and variant forms in the modern editions, and a distribution map linked to a tabular list of the parcels of land associated with the name in Domesday. Each completed profile of an individual consists of a summary, together with a fuller analysis explaining the identification and describing, in appropriate detail, what is known about that person’s career and landed estates, followed by a bibliography of the primary sources and modern literature cited, and a distribution map linked to a tabular list of estates.

The profiles are presented in five stages of completion, referred to as their ‘editorial status’ both in the table of contents on the PASE Domesday home page and within the profiles themselves. The five stages of completion are:

Editorial stage 1. The property connected with persons of this name is captured in the database, but no attempt has yet been made to identify individuals bearing the name.

Editorial stage 2. A provisional attempt has been made to identify this person, but the material remains to be checked and edited, and the profile remains to be written.

Editorial stage 3. The identification of this person in the database is complete, but their profile has not yet been written.

Editorial stage 4. Unedited draft.

Editorial stage 5. Completed profile.

Digital Research Methods

Most of the historical research was undertaken using standard software packages. The Domesday database was compiled using Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access, and regularly imported into ESRI ArcMap in order to generate maps and facilitate prosopographical judgements based on geographical distributions. The profiles of landholders were written in Microsoft Word. The essence of the digital research that followed was to design and implement the processes that have enabled online publication of materials produced in offline formats.

The digital research team has designed systems to facilitate three principal tasks:

1. A way of publishing the written outputs online.

The objective was to convert the profiles written in Microsoft Word into web pages which could be published online through the PASE website. Each individual profile document is a substantial piece of work in its own right, and in many cases they needed to be written, augmented, and edited over a period of time. The most technically simple solution would have been to model the documents into a database structure and then provide simple content creation tools for them to be written and edited online. That approach, however, was judged to be a poor fit for a process of scholarly authoring for which the most idiomatic environment was felt to be the standard word-processing software familiar to the team members. A fully structured online editing approach would also have been proscriptive, whereas a free-format Microsoft Word-based approach enabled the team to retain some degree of flexibility in composing individual profiles. At the same time, however, a process needed to be designed to allow the profiles to be integrated into the PASE database for display on the web.

To facilitate this, the digital research team developed a parsing and accession tool for standard Word documents using the Python programming language, which is particularly versatile for manipulating text. The project team embedded special character sequences or ‘control codes’ into each Word file, which were used by the Python scripts to split a profile into sections, automatically creating database records for particular names and attaching profiles to existing people in PASE. Placeholder images used to represent property distributions in the Word documents were replaced with dynamically generated interactive maps, and static tables were replaced with live data drawn directly from the PASE database.

2. Generating interactive tables for inclusion in the written outputs.

In order to read and fully comprehend the material in the written outputs, it is essential for readers to able to see, and if necessary to manipulate and interact with, the information in the database. Accordingly, the digital research team designed a mechanism for drawing information from the Domesday database into summary tables embedded into the written output. This enables users to see, at a glance, a list of the properties connected with a particular name or person, as well as information critical for identifying that person: the Domesday edition reference, the shire, the person’s lord in 1066, the person who held the estate in 1086, the subtenant in 1086, and the fiscal assessment and monetary value of the estate. Users can  reorder the data in the tables to explore them further. The sophisticated functionality of desktop GIS software such as ArcGIS has been emulated online by enabling the linkage of data rendered on the map to data in tabular form, and vice versa.

Generating interactive maps for inclusion in the written outputs.

It is also essential for readers to see the geographical distribution of the landholdings attributed to each name and person, since this is one of the most critical factors in making identifications. Accordingly, the digital research team designed a way of embedding interactive maps for each name and each landholder within the written outputs.

The maps consist of several base layers (a simple white base map of Britain, a hill-shade relief map, plus satellite and street maps of the modern landscape) and a series of overlays (contours, shire boundaries, rivers, and Domesday towns). The landholdings attributed to particular names or people are then mapped onto these, using circles of different colours to represent different forms of landholding and lordship at different dates (1066 and 1086). The dots can be graduated to reflect the size of the property in question. The user can interact with the map in a number of ways. The map can be dragged and repositioned; each of the layers can be turned on or off; the user can zoom in and out to view the information in more or less detail (and as they do so, further layers of detail in the base map are brought in and out of view); and the user can click on any specific dot to view the key information for that piece of landed property.

The first edition of PASE Domesday had already implemented map-based visualization and analysis tools for Domesday Book. However, the technologies employed imposed a number of limitations on what could be done with the data. For example, where a user’s search found more than a few hundred results the map display was extremely slow to appear in the client browser, sometimes unusably so on older computer equipment. We have now completely replaced the original mapping infrastructure (Mapserver)  with the more actively maintained and more powerful Geoserver, and changed the delivery mechanism in the client browser from OpenLayers (which, while popular and powerful, carries an overhead in terms of bandwidth and rendering speed) to LeafletJS, a mapping library which is newer and provides support for a wide range of web browsers and devices (including mobile phones and tablets).

Having upgraded the basic mapping infrastructure, the digital research team then upgraded numerous aspects of the maps themselves. The base map – that is, the background imagery upon which data are plotted – was remade as a new hipsometric (tinted terrain) map, using data from NASA’s GETASSE30 (Global Earth Topography And Sea Surface Elevation at 30 arc second resolution) elevation model, and the Ordnance Survey Panorama DTM.  The hipsometric map imagery was prerendered using TileMill to provide the basis for a ‘slippy map’ interface, that is, a map that can be panned and zoomed in a web browser in a slick, fluid way, providing a similar experience to that of Google Maps or Bing. The tiles are served by Geoserver and cached by GeoWebCache to improve speed of response as the resource is used. The plugin for LeafletJS that was developed to enable this has been released as an Open Source tool.

In addition, the digital research team has made various improvements to the appearance and usability of the Pase Domesday maps. Scale-dependent styling of features such as rivers and towns has been added in an attempt to avoid cluttering the display when zoomed in. At high levels of zoom, map markers indicating results can ‘spiderfy’ if they are too close to each other to be selected independently (so if there are several results attached to a single location, they can all be seen). Finally, the accuracy needed to ‘click’ a map pin to see the associated data has been reduced, making the map easier to interrogate.

Further work was needed to address the specific problems posed by the need to show several hundred individual points at one time on the distribution maps. To address this, the search parameters used for PASE Domesday’s searches and for requesting maps for person profiles have been routed to Geoserver as a Common Query Language request, in response to which Geoserver generates a single image containing all the markers on the map. This image is created on-the-fly, for example each time a user zooms in to the map.

All mapped data are now generated directly from the same database which powers the PASE website, ensuring consistent results and providing a mechanism for sustaining PASE Domesday as the material is refined and augmented.

The Research Team

The project was directed by Stephen Baxter. The historical research was undertaken by Stephen Baxter, Chris Lewis, and Duncan Probert, with contributions by Alex Dymond and Katherine Blayney. The digital research was undertaken by John Bradley, Elliot Hall, Neil Jakeman, and David Little, under the direction of Paul Vetch, José Miguel Monteiro Vieira, James Smithies, and Pamela Mellen.

Research Outputs and Public Engagement

In addition to PASE Domesday itself, the research team has published the following papers which develop specific aspects of the wider project:

D. Probert, ‘Wulfnoð, Olaf and the Domesday scribes’, Nomina 35 (2012)

S. Baxter, ‘The Making of Domesday Book and the Languages of Lordship in Conquered England’, in Conceptualizing Multilingualism in Medieval England c. 800–c. 1250, ed. E. M. Tyler (Turnhout, 2012), pp. 271–308

C. P. Lewis, ‘The Invention of the Manor in Norman England’, Anglo-Norman Studies 34: Proceedings of the Battle Conference, 2011 (2012), 123–50

D. Probert, ‘Algar Son of Leofflæd and the Earliest Stratum among the Fratres Kalendarum of Exeter’, Notes and Queries 258, new series 60 (2013), 26–8

D. Probert, ‘Two Misread Names in the Cornish Folios of the Exeter Domesday’, Notes and Queries (2015), 517–19

C. P. Lewis, ‘Danish Landowners in Wessex in 1066’, in Danes in Wessex: The Scandinavian Impact on Southern England, c. 800–c. 1100, ed. R. Lavelle and S. Roffey (Oxford, 2015), pp. 172–211

S. Baxter and C. P. Lewis, ‘Comment identifier les propriétaires fonciers du Domesday Book en Angleterre et en Normandie? Le cas d’Osbern fitzOsbern’, in Penser les mondes normands médiévaux, ed. D. Bates and P. Bauduin (Caen, 2016), pp. 207–44

The research team has also given papers and presentations to a wide variety of audiences, including:

C. P. Lewis and D. Probert, ‘Profiling the Doomed Elite of 1066: Report on a New Research Project’, given to the London Society for Medieval Studies, at the Institute of Historical Research, London, 16 November 2010

S. Baxter, C. P. Lewis and D. Probert, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: Defining Methods’, given to the project’s Advisory Group Meeting held at King’s College, London, 12 December 2010

S. Baxter, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066’, given to The Historical Association West Surrey Branch at Guildford 17 January 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: English Landowners in 1066’, lecture to St Helens Historical Society (Lancashire), 21 February 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘Profiling English Landowners on the Eve of the Norman Conquest’, lecture given to the Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies at King’s College, London, 10 March 2011

D. Probert, ‘Report on the Profile of a Doomed Elite Project’, given to the Society for Name Studies in Britain and Ireland, at the University of Kent, Canterbury, 17 April 2011

D. Probert, ‘Report on the Profile of a Doomed Elite Project’, given to the English Place-Name Society, at the British Academy, London, 6 July 2011

S. Baxter, ‘Profiling the Doomed Elite of 1066’, C. P. Lewis, ‘Patterns of Landownership in Late Anglo-Saxon England’, and D. Probert, ‘Patterns of Personal Naming in Late Anglo-Saxon England’, given at the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 11 July 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘The Invention of the Manor in Norman England’, paper read at 34th Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies, held at the King’s Manor, University of York, 31 July 2011

S. Baxter, ‘Earls in Late Anglo-Saxon England’, given to a conference on The Earl in Medieval Britain, held at Jesus College, Oxford, 10 September 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘Danish Landowners in Wessex in 1066’, paper read to a conference on ‘Danes in Wessex: The Scandinavian Impact and Influence on Wessex in the Early Middle Ages’, being the autumn conference of the Wessex Centre for History and Archaeology, University of Winchester, 24 September 2011

S. Baxter and C. P. Lewis, ‘Reflexions à propos des mondes normands: Profile of a Doomed Elite’, given to a conference Penser Les Mondes Normands/Thinking about the Norman Worlds at the Centre Culturel de Cerisy-la-Salle, Normandy (Université de Caen Basse-Normandie), 30 September 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘Domesday Book’, undergraduate class for Oxford University BA Modern History Special Subject on the Norman Conquest, 25 October 2011, repeated 23 October 2012

D. Probert, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066’, given to the Institute for Medieval and Early Modern Studies, at Bangor University, Wales, 1 November 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘Profiling English Landed Society in 1066: The Progress and Potential of a Pre-Conquest Prosopographical Project’, paper read at the Haskins Society Conference, at Boston College (USA), 4 November 2011

C. P. Lewis, ‘The English Military Elite Before and After the Battle of Hastings’, lecture in Military Miscellany series at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester (organized by the University of Chester Department of History and Archaeology, the Society of Thirteen, and the Friends of Cheshire Military Museum), 21 February 2012

S. Baxter, with C. P. Lewis and D. Probert, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: the Structure of English Landed Society in 1066’, given to the Earlier Middle Ages Seminar, at the Institute of Historical Research, London, 14 March 2012

D. Probert, ‘Some Ambiguities and Identifications among Domesday Names’, given to the Society for Name Studies in Britain and Ireland, at Athenry, Ireland, 31 March 2012

S. Baxter, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: La structure de la société terrienne en Angleterre en 1066’, given at Séminaire franco-britannique d’histoire, 10 May 2012

K. Blayney, ‘The Making of Domesday Book: The Hampshire Folios Reconsidered’, C. P. Lewis, ‘Danish Landowners in Eleventh-Century Wessex’, and D. Probert, ‘Names and Landholders in Pre-Conquest Dorset’, given at the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 11 July 2012

C. P. Lewis, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066’, presentation at the Joint Committee on Anglo-Saxon Charters Symposium, British Academy, London, 19 September 2012

D. Probert, ‘Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066’, given to the Centre for the Study of the Middle Ages, at the University of Birmingham, 24 October 2012

C. P. Lewis, ‘From Lost Archive to Digital Archive: Profiling English Landed Society in 1066’, given at King’s College London, postgraduate history seminar on Archives, 14 November 2012

C. P. Lewis, ‘Wiltshire Landowners in 1066’, lecture to Wiltshire Archaeology and Natural History Society, given at Wiltshire Heritage Museum, Devizes, 26 January 2013

C. P. Lewis, ‘Profiling English Landed Society in 1066: A Progress Report’, graduate seminar at University of Cambridge Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Celtic, 18 February 2013

C. P. Lewis, ‘Surrey Landowners in 1066’, lecture to Surrey Archaeological Society day school, Surrey History Centre, Woking, 16 March 2013

C. P. Lewis, ‘Viking Naming Culture in English Mercia’, given at conference on ‘The Vikings in the North-West’, at Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, 13 April 2013

S. Baxter, ‘Exon Domesday: A National Treasure’, given to the Friends of Exeter Cathedral at the cathedral on 7 May 2013

C. P. Lewis, ‘Doomed Elite Update: A Danish Family in Eleventh-Century Wessex’, given to Joint Committee on Anglo-Saxon Charters 19th Annual Symposium, British Academy, 11 September 2014

D. Probert, ‘Ingold, Thorgisl and the S 1026 charter for Upper Swell’, Joint Committee on Anglo-Saxon Charters 20th Annual Symposium, British Academy, 7 September 2015

C. P. Lewis, ‘The Madness of Countess Gode’, given at the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 6 July 2016

S. Baxter and C. P. Lewis, ‘The Structure of Landed Society in England, 1066–1086’, lecture given at the Conquest: 1016, 1066 conference, held at Oxford, 24 July 2016

Citation

Please cite PASE Domesday as follows:

Stephen Baxter, ‘Abba 15: Abba, the man of Earl Harold, fl. 1066’, PASE Domesday, www.domesday.pase.ac.uk, accessed 22 July 2016.

The names of authors, supplied as three initials within each profile, may be expanded as follows: APD as Alex Dymond; CPL as C. P. Lewis; DWP as Duncan Probert; KLB as Katherine Blayney; SDB as Stephen Baxter.

Copyright

Copyright © PASE Domesday, 2016.

The following persons assert their moral right to be recognized as author and editor of aspects of this work: Stephen Baxter, Katherine Blayney, Alex Dymond, Chris Lewis, and Duncan Probert.

Acknowledgements

All those involved with this second edition of PASE Domesday wish to acknowledge the generous financial support of the Leverhulme Trust, which funded the project as a ‘Research Project Grant’ for two years, between September 2010 and August 2012.

We wish also to acknowledge the generosity of the University of Oxford History Faculty, in making a contribution from the Sanderson fund to meet the cost of entering 13,000 profiles into the PASE Domesday systems. This work was undertaken by Alex Dymond and Lois Lane.

We wish more generally to acknowledge the very large number of people who have generously given the research team advice, guidance, information, encouragement, and intellectual enthusiasm throughout the duration of the project.

Bibliography

The following bibliography lists only those works cited in this introduction to PASE Domesday. Bibliographical information relating to particular names and people is embedded within PASE Domesday profiles.

Clarke 1994: P. A. Clarke, The English Nobility under Edward the Confessor (Oxford, 1994)

Corbet 1926: W. J. Corbett, ‘The Development of the Duchy of Normandy and the Norman Conquest of England’, The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5: The Contest of Empire and Papacy, ed. J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte-Orton, and Z. N. Brooke (Cambridge, 1926), pp. 481–520

Dodgson 1985: J. McN. Dodgson, ‘Some Domesday Personal-Names, mainly Post-Conquest’, Nomina 9 (1985), 41–51

Fellows Jensen 1968: Gillian Fellows Jensen, Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire (Copenhagen, 1968)

Fellows Jensen 1972: Gillian Fellows Jensen, Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire (Copenhagen, 1972)

Keats-Rohan 1999: K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066–1166. I. Domesday Book (Woodbridge, 1999)

Insley 2003: J. Insley, ‘Pre-Conquest Personal Names’, Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 23 (Berlin and New York, 2003), 367–96

Lewis 1997: C. P. Lewis, ‘Joining the Dots: A Methodology for Identifying the English in Domesday Book’, in Family Trees and the Roots of Politics, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 69–87

Morris et al. 1974–86: Domesday Book, ed. J. Morris et al., Phillimore, 34 vols (Chichester, 1974–86)

Palmer 2010: J. Palmer, Electronic Edition of Domesday Book: Translation, Databases and Scholarly Commentary, 1086, 2nd edn (2010), published online by the UK Data Service, SN: 5694, currently at http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5694-1

Williams 1991: A. Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1991)

William 2008: A. Williams, The World before Domesday: The English Aristocracy, 9001066 (London, 2008)

Williams 2000: Little Domesday: Library Edition, ed. A. Williams, Alecto Historical Editions (London, 2000)

Williams and Erskine 1986–1992: Great Domesday Book: Library Edition, ed. A. Williams and R. W. H. Erskine, Alecto Historical Editions (London, 1986–92)

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