PASE: Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England

Domesday

[Image: Excerpt from the Domesday Book]
[Image: Durham Liber Vitae, folio 38r (extract)]

Waltheof 2 Waltheof earl, d. 1076

Male
Author: SDB
Editorial Status: 4 of 5

Discussion of the name  

Summary

          

Waltheof 2 was the son of Earl Siward (d. 1055). He played a significant role in English politics between his appointment to an earldom in the east Midlands in the early 1060s his execution in 1076. Domesday Book records that he held land worth £198 in eight shires, and that he attracted the commendations of about 45 landholders in four shires TRE.

Distribution map of property and lordships associated with this name in DB

List of property and lordships associated with this name in DB

           

Holder 1066

Shire Phil. ref. Vill Holder 1066 DB Spelling Holder 1066 Lord 1066 Tenant-in-Chief 1086 1086 subtenant Fiscal value 1066 value 1086 value Holder 1066 ID conf. Show on map
Yorkshire C27 Heyworth Waltef Waltheof, earl - William, king Robert, count of Mortain 3.00 0.50 0.53 E Map
Middlesex 24,1 Tottenham Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 5.00 26.00 28.00 A Map
Huntingdonshire B19 Huntingdon Waltheof, earl - William, king - 0.00 0.67 0.00 D Map
Huntingdonshire 20,9 Diddington Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess Alan the steward of Countess Judith 3.00 2.00 3.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,1 Ryhall Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.50 6.00 6.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,1 Belmesthorpe Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.50 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,2 Ashley Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.33 0.27 0.27 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,3 Sutton Bassett Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.67 0.53 0.53 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,4 Weston by Welland Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.33 1.07 1.07 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,5 Dingley Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.38 0.33 0.33 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,6 Brampton Ash Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.00 0.27 0.27 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20a Yardley Hastings Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 3.50 12.00 15.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20b Grendon Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 3.25 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20c Whiston Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.25 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20d Denton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20e Hackleton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 2.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20f Horton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.25 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20g Wollaston Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20h Brafield-on-the-Green Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.75 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20i Quinton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.50 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20j Hardingtstone Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 2.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,20k Yardley Hastings Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - Map
Northamptonshire 56,21 Daventry Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 8.00 3.00 8.00 D Map
Northamptonshire 56,22 Twywell Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.50 0.50 0.50 B Map
Northamptonshire 56,22 Twywell Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.50 0.50 0.00 A Map
Leicestershire 14,16 Houghton-on-the-Hill Wallef Waltheof, earl - Henry de Ferrers Godric of Houghton-on-the-Hill' 9.00 1.00 1.00 - Map
Leicestershire 40,1 Oadby Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 9.25 2.00 3.00 A Map
Leicestershire 40,2 Peatling Magna Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 4.00 0.75 1.67 A Map
Leicestershire 40,3 Cosby Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 8.00 1.50 3.33 A Map
Leicestershire 40,4 Frolesworth Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 6.00 2.00 2.00 A Map
Leicestershire 40,5 Sharnford Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 1.00 0.13 0.13 A Map
Leicestershire 40,6 Willoughby Waterless Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 4.75 1.50 2.00 A Map
Leicestershire 40,7 Heather Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 4.00 0.07 1.00 A Map
Derbyshire 6,40 Brailsford Wallef Waltheof, earl - Henry de Ferrers Elfin 'of Brailsford' 2.00 3.00 2.00 A Map
Derbyshire 6,41 Hollington Waltheof, earl - Henry de Ferrers Elfin 'of Brailsford' 0.19 0.00 0.00 - Map
Derbyshire 6,41 Shirley Waltheof, earl - Henry de Ferrers Elfin 'of Brailsford' 0.19 0.00 0.00 - Map
Derbyshire 6,58 Osmaston Wallef Waltheof, earl - Henry de Ferrers Elfin 'of Brailsford' 1.00 2.00 1.00 C Map
Rutland 2,7 Market Overton and Stretton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 3.50 12.00 20.00 A Map
Rutland 2,11 Whissendine Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess Hugh de Hotot 4.00 8.00 13.00 A Map
Rutland 2,12 Exton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 2.00 8.00 10.00 A Map
Yorkshire 5N24 Eston Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain Richard de Sourdeval 9.00 2.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N36 Newsham in Amotherby Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 1.50 0.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N43 Cawton Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 3.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N44 Scackleton Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 1.50 0.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N45 Barton-le-Street Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain Richard de Sourdeval 8.00 1.00 0.50 E Map
Yorkshire 5N46 Fadmoor Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 5.00 0.50 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N55 Terrington and Wiganthorpe Walteif Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 3.75 0.50 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N62 Crambe Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 4.00 0.50 1.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N65 Whitewell-on-the-Hill Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 5.00 1.58 0.12 E Map
Yorkshire 5N72 North Kilvington Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 2.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N75 North Lilvington and Upsall in South Kilvington andHundulthorpe Waltef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 11.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5N76 Upsall Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain Richard de Sourdeval 0.00 0.00 0.00 - Map
Yorkshire 5E62 Rillington Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 2.25 0.00 0.00 - Map
Yorkshire 5E64 Barthorpe Walteu Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 6.00 0.00 0.00 D Map
Yorkshire 5E65 Howsham and Sudnicton in Westow Walteu Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 14.00 4.00 4.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5E66 Kirkham Walteu Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain - 8.00 3.00 2.00 E Map
Yorkshire 5W38 Cundall and Norton-le-Clay Wallef Waltheof, earl - Robert, count of Mortain Alfred ''of Cundall' 21.00 4.00 1.00 E Map
Yorkshire 10W41 Hallam Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess Roger de Bully 29.00 5.33 2.00 A Map
Lincolnshire T5 Waltef Waltheof, earl - - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - Map
Lincolnshire 34,12 Wragby Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 0.81 14.00 10.00 D Map
Lincolnshire 34,13 Hatton Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 5.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,14 Collow Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 1.50 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,15 Panton Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 2.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,16 Hardwick Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 0.63 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,17 West Barkwith Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 2.25 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,18 East Torrington Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 2.50 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,19 Langton by Wragby Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 0.25 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,20 Fulnetby Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 3.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,21 Rand Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 3.00 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,22 Girsby Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 0.75 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 34,23 Kingthorpe Waltheof, earl - Erneis de Buron - 0.28 0.00 0.00 E Map
Lincolnshire 56,11 Market Overton Waltef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 3.50 12.00 40.00 A Map
Lincolnshire 56,13 Whissendine Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess Hugh de Hotot 4.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Lincolnshire 56,14 Eagle Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 8.00 10.00 12.00 A Map
Lincolnshire 56,15 Thurlby Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 7.50 0.00 0.00 A Map
Lincolnshire 56,16 Swinderby Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 11.00 0.00 0.00 A Map
Lincolnshire 56,17 Exton Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 2.00 8.00 10.00 A Map
Essex 55,1 Walthamstow Wallef Waltheof, earl - Judith, countess - 10.50 15.00 28.00 A Map
Northamptonshire B38 Northampton Waltheof, earl - William, king Judith, countess 0.00 7.00 7.00 E Map
Huntingdonshire B16 Huntingdon Waltheof, earl - William, king - 0.00 3.33 3.06 D Map
Huntingdonshire B17 Huntingdon Waltheof, earl - William, king - 0.00 10.00 10.00 D Map
Huntingdonshire B17 Huntingdon Waltheof, earl - William, king - 0.00 1.00 1.00 D Map
Huntingdonshire B18 Huntingdon Waltheof, earl - William, king - 2.42 0.15 0.15 D Map
Total               308.98 198.48 255.46  

Lord 1066

Shire Phil. ref. Vill Lord 1066 DB Spelling Holder 1066 Lord 1066 Tenant-in-Chief 1086 1086 subtenant Fiscal value 1066 value 1086 value Lord 1066 ID conf. Show on map
Cambridgeshire 41,11 Conington Wallef 1 housecarl Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Picot of Cambridge 1.00 0.35 1.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 39,2 Croxton Wallef 1 man Waltheof, earl David d'Argentan - 1.50 2.50 2.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 40,1 Waterbeach Wallef 1 man Waltheof, earl 2 king's carpenters - 1.50 3.41 2.50 B Map
Cambridgeshire 41,15 Dry Drayton Wallef 1 man Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Roger of Olney 0.75 1.00 0.80 A Map
Cambridgeshire 41,16 Childerley Wallef 1 man Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Picot of Cambridge 5.00 8.00 4.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 21,7 Conington Wallef 1 man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Robert Gernon Picot of Cambridge 1.25 1.00 0.80 A Map
Cambridgeshire 32,40 Cottenham Wallef 1 sokeman Waltheof, earl Picot of Cambridge Roger 'the man of Picot of Cambridge' 0.12 0.06 0.05 A Map
Cambridgeshire 41,8 Trumpington Wallef 1 sokeman Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Gollam 'of Trumpington' 0.50 0.50 0.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 44,1 Comberton Wallef 1 sokeman Waltheof, earl Erchenger the baker - 0.38 0.90 0.68 A Map
Cambridgeshire 1,6 Comberton Wallef 1 sokeman Waltheof, earl William, king 1 sokeman 0.13 0.10 0.05 A Map
Cambridgeshire 13,11 Arrington Wallef 1 sokeman, man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Roger, earl - 1.00 3.14 2.57 A Map
Cambridgeshire 26,34 Orwell Wallef 1 sokeman, man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Hardwin de Scales Durand the man of Hardwin de Scales 0.75 1.80 0.90 A Map
Cambridgeshire 26,35 Wratworth Wallef 1 sokeman, man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Hardwin de Scales 1 knight 0.67 2.22 1.11 A Map
Cambridgeshire 32,14 Comberton Wallef 1 sokeman, man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl - - 0.38 0.75 0.00 A Map
Buckinghamshire 5,10 Tyringham Wallef 1 thegn, man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Geoffrey, bishop of Coutances Ansketil 'of Tyringham' 2.50 2.79 2.33 A Map
Cambridgeshire 37,2 Barton Wallef 2 sokemen Waltheof, earl William de Cahagnes - 1.63 6.50 5.20 A Map
Cambridgeshire 37,2 Barton Wallef 2 sokemen Waltheof, earl William de Cahagnes - 0.88 3.50 2.80 A Map
Cambridgeshire 38,3 Grantchester Wallef 3 sokemen Waltheof, earl Robert Fafiton - 2.00 7.27 5.09 A Map
Cambridgeshire 41,12 Madingley Wallef 4 men Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Picot of Cambridge 3.00 2.00 1.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 37,1 Comberton Wallef Akeli, the man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl William de Cahagnes - 0.38 0.50 0.50 A Map
Huntingdonshire 19,27 Hail Weston Wallef Algeat 'of Hail Weston' Waltheof, earl Eustace the sheriff - 1.50 2.00 1.00 B Map
Cambridgeshire 13,3 Croydon Wallef Almær 'of Croydon' Waltheof, earl Roger, earl - 0.75 0.50 0.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 13,12 Kingston Wallef Almær son of Goding Waltheof, earl Roger, earl - 0.17 0.10 0.10 A Map
Cambridgeshire 25,8 Kingston Wallef Almær son of Goding Waltheof, earl Eudo the steward Humphrey d'Anneville 0.08 0.03 0.03 A Map
Cambridgeshire 39,3 Westwick Wallef Godmund 'of Westwick' Waltheof, earl David d'Argentan Robert 'of Westwick' 1.00 1.00 1.00 A Map
Huntingdonshire 19,31 Boughton Godric the priest, the man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Eustace the sheriff - 1.00 1.00 0.50 A Map
Huntingdonshire D12 Boughton Wallef Godric the priest, the man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Eustace the sheriff - 1.00 0.00 0.00 - Map
Cambridgeshire 41,13 Oakington Wallef Godwine 'of Oakington' Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Roger of Olney 1.58 4.00 1.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 41,14 Over Wallef Godwine 'of Oakington' Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Roger of Olney 0.50 1.00 1.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 36,1 Longstanton Wallef Hoc 'of Longstanton' Waltheof, earl William fitzAnsculf Picot of Cambridge 0.13 0.20 0.10 A Map
Bedfordshire 23,17 Aspley Guise Wallef Leofgifu 'of Aspley' Waltheof, earl Hugh de Beauchamp Acard d'Ivry 10.00 10.00 8.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 21,8 Boxworth Wallef Leofsige 'of Boxworth' Waltheof, earl Robert Gernon Picot of Cambridge 3.50 3.00 1.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 21,9 Swavesey Wallef Leofsige 'of Boxworth' Waltheof, earl Robert Gernon Picot of Cambridge 1.00 1.00 0.25 A Map
Bedfordshire 40,3 Totternhoe Wallef Leofwine Cild Waltheof, earl William the chamberlain - 6.75 8.00 2.50 A Map
Cambridgeshire 39,1 Caldecote Wallef Sigar 'of Caldecote' Waltheof, earl David d'Argentan - 0.42 1.50 1.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 43,1 Oakington Wallef Siward, the man of earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl unnamed wife of Boselin de Dives - 1.50 3.00 1.50 A Map
Northamptonshire 56,39 Bozeat Wallef Strikr 'of Caldecote' Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Lanzelin 'of Bozeat' 1.75 2.00 2.00 A Map
Cambridgeshire 38,5 Dry Drayton Wallef Sægar 'of Dry Drayton' Waltheof, earl Robert Fafiton - 3.00 3.00 2.00 A Map
Bedfordshire 53,31 Southill Wallef Tuffa, the man of Earl Waltheof Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Hugh de Beauchamp 1.00 3.00 1.50 A Map
Northamptonshire 53,1 Chadstone Wallef Ulf son of Azur Waltheof, earl Drew de la Beuvrière - 1.75 1.00 2.00 A Map
Buckinghamshire 53,2 Weston Underwood Wallef Wulfric 'of Weston Underwood' Waltheof, earl Judith, countess Ansketil 'of Tyringham' 0.75 1.00 0.50 A Map
Hertfordshire 19,2 Polehanger Wallef Ælfric 'of Polehanger' Waltheof, earl Robert d'Oilly Geoffrey Martel 0.50 1.00 0.50 A Map
Total               64.95 95.62 63.36  

Profile

   

Career

Earl Waltheof was the son of Siward, earl of Northumbria (d. 1055) and his second wife Ælfflæd, a member of the house of Bamburgh which ruled in northern Northumbria throughout much of the tenth and eleventh centuries: Ælfflæd was the daughter of Earl Ealdred (d. 1038), son of Earl Uhtred (d. 1016). Waltheof’s name does not occur among the thegns who subscribed King Edward the Confessor’s diplomas, but his subscription as earl (dux) does occur in fifth place among six earls in a royal diploma dated 1061 (S 1033). His subscription also occurs in fifth place among five earls in a charter issued by Earl Ælfgar in the same year (S 1237; Baxter 2008: 268-9); and in sixth place among six earls in a royal diploma dated 1065 (S 1042). He did not succeed to his father’s earldom of Northumbria, which was administered by Earl Tostig between 1055 and 1065. Instead, Waltheof assigned an earldom in the east Midlands. Its precise extent is difficult to determine, but the fact the bulk of the estates assigned to him in Domesday Book lay in Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire commends the view that this was the core of his command; and it is possible that it extended into Leicestershire, Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire where Waltheof held estates and exercised lordship before 1066 (see further below).

Waltheof is not named in reliable accounts of the campaigns of 1066, though late Icelandic sources do mention him in this connection (Scott 1952: 164-70). He was among the English nobles whom William took with him to Normandy in 1067 (ASC MS D s.a. 1066; Davis and Chibnall 1998: 166; Bates 1998: no. 159), and subscribed two royal diplomas issued in England in May 1068 (Bates 1998: nos. 181, 286). Shortly afterwards he rebelled, playing a leading role in a coalition of English and Danish forces that attacked the king’s castles in York in 1069 (ASC MS DE s.a. 1069; Chibnall 1969-80: vol. ii, 226-8); Waltheof’s part in the sacking of York was celebrated in verse by his retainer, an Icelandic skald named Thorkell Skallason (Scott 1952: 167; Campbell 1970: 16). When William marched north to confront the rebels, Waltheof withdrew from York with his cousin Earl Gospatric, and in early 1070 they submitted to the king on the banks of the Tees (ASC MS DE s.a. 1070; Chibnall 1969-80: vol. ii, 232). William subsequently pardoned Waltheof for his involvement in the rebellion, and it was perhaps a function of their reconciliation that Waltheof married the William’s niece Judith (Chibnall 1969-80: vol. ii, 262).

Waltheof appears to have remained active in the east Midlands during the next four years. At some stage between 1071 and 1075 he was among the commissioners whom King William instructed to enquire into encroachments against the endowment of Ely Abbey (Bates 1998: no. 117); he granted Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire to Bishop Remigius of Lincoln, perhaps shortly after the transfer of his see from Dorchester to Lincoln in 1072 (Bishop and Chaplais 1957, no. 14, plate XIII; Bates 1998: no. 177); and he and Judith granted three hides and three virgates in Bedfordshire to Bury St Edmunds (GDB 210v (Bedfordshire 6:3). Orderic, drawing on Crowland tradition, says that Waltheof gave Barnack in Northamptonshire to Crowland Abbey (Chibnall 1969-80: ii. 344). Waltheof is also known to have acquired property in this region between 1066 and 1075 (see below).

In addition, Waltheof’s delegated powers were greatly augmented in 1072 when, following the deposition of Earl Gospatric, he was appointed earl of Northumbria (Arnold 1882-5: vol. ii, 196, 199). A few fragments of his career in the north are known. The Historia Regum attributed to Symeon of Durham says that Waltheof sat beside Bishop Walcher of Durham (1071-1080) during synods and ensured that was whatever was there decreed was enacted throughout his earldom; the same text says that Waltheof committed his nephew Morcar to be a monk at Jarrow; and a spurious charter purports to records that Waltheof granted land at Tynemouth to Durham ((Arnold 1882-5: vol. ii, pp. 199-200, 260; Scott 1952: 197-201; Offler 1968: nos. 2c, 5, pp. 4-6, 39-47). Another Durham text says that Waltheof sent a gang to Settrington in Yorkshire to kill the sons of Karl to avenge the latter’s murder of Waltheof’s grandfather, Earl Ealdred in 1038; this is plausible, though it remains probable that Waltheof’s involvement in this long-running feud was also a function of more immediate political calculations (Arnold 1882-5: vol. i, 219, ii. 200; Fletcher 2002: 186-93).

Whatever the case, Waltheof’s position of favour within the Conqueror’s regime proved short-lived. In 1075, he became involved or was implicated in the revolt of earls Ralph of East Anglia and Roger of Hereford. The precise extent and nature of his involvement is unclear, but it is plain that he tried but failed to obtain a pardon from King William, and that after several months of confinement he was executed by beheading on St Giles’s Hill outside Winchester on 31 May 1076 (ASC MSS DE s.a. 1075, 1076; Chibnall 1969-80: 312-22; Winterbottom 2007: 486-8; Williams 1991: 59-65). His body was initially buried in unconsecrated ground, but was shortly afterwards taken for burial at Crowland, which became one of the focal points for his cult (Watkins 1996). His obit is entered in an Ely kalendar, albeit on the wrong day (31 July for 31 May) (; Dickens 1937: 20-1); and he, Judith and Earl Siward are commemorated in the Liber Vitae of Thorney Abbey (; Whitelock 1940: 132; Clark 1985).

Domesday estates

Domesday Book attributes property to Earl Waltheof TRE in eight shires (Derbyshire, Essex, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Rutland and Yorkshire), which had a total value of £198 and was assessed at 304 hides or equivalents. There are however grounds for thinking that these figures understate the full extent of his holdings, both before and after 1066.

The majority of Earl Waltheof’s TRE holdings can be identified with a high degree of confidence because the entries in question usually supply him the title of comes; however, a few ambiguities remain. Osmaston in Derbyshire is said to have been held by Waltheof and a certain Æthelgeat TRE (GDB 275b (Derbyshire 6:58)). This assigned to Earl Waltheof on the grounds that it is located less than five miles from an estate at Brailsford, which is explicitly assigned to the earl and passed to the same successor and subtenant. An entry at the end of a group of seven estates in the fee of Countess Judith in Leicestershire records ‘Hanc terram totam Wallef comes tenuit et Sbern unus liber homo (‘Earl Waltheof held all of this land, and Esbern, a free man’ (GDB 236 (Leicestershire 40:1-7)). It is not clear from this what interest Esbern had in these lands: it is possible, for instance, that he held one of the estates in question, or that he had some form of subordinate interest in them, perhaps as the earl’s reeve. Whatever the case, all of these estates have been assigned to Earl Waltheof since that is what the text explicitly says. The manor of Wragby in Lincolnshire and its appurtenant sokelands have been assigned to Earl Waltheof even though he is not named in these entries (GDB 362 (Lincolnshire 34:12-23)) for these reasons: this is a large estate consistent with a lord of high status; although no TRE holder is named, Waltheof’s wife Countess Judith is said to have ‘had’ this manor; Judith frequently succeeded to Waltheof’s estates; and earl Waltheof is known to have held land elsewhere in the same shire. No TRE holder is named for Daventry in Northamptonshire, but the relevant entry occurs between entries describing two other estates attributed to Earl Waltheof (GDB 228 (Northantonshire 56:21)). Four entries in the Huntingdonshire Domesday refer to property and sources of income shared between the king and earl TRE, and since Waltheof was almost certainly earl of Huntingdon in 1066, once third of this income has been assigned to him (GDB 203 (Huntingdonshire B:16-19)). An entry in the Northamptonshire Domesday says that Countess Judith received £7 from the town of Northampton in 1086, and this has similarly been assigned to Earl Waltheof on the presumption that he would have enjoyed income from this town since it appears to have formed part of his earldom in 1066 (GDB 219 (Northamptonshire B:38)). Finally, several estates in Yorkshire are attributed to Waltheof without specifically identifying him as earl. It is possible that these were held by another person, for Yorkshire is where one might most expect another man of this name to hold land, since the few pre-Domesday occurrences of the name Waltheof occur in northern contexts; the spelling of the name in the Yorkshire entries (Walleu, Waltef, and Waltief) differs from the more usual Wallef; and the estates in question passed to successors other than those who succeeded to estates explicitly assigned to the Earl Waltheof elsewhere. However, the substantial size of the estates in question favours identification with Earl Waltheof; the Yorkshire Domesday attributes a large number of estates to Earl Morcar without supplying his title; and the son of Earl Siward is likely to have inherited property in Yorkshire that did not pertain the earldom: indeed, this might explain why he is not styled earl in these entries, and why they did not pass to Judith.

It is possible that Domesday Book conceals the full extent of Earl Waltheof’s TRE holdings. Three considerations are relevant here. First, Domesday Book attributes estates worth £212 in total to Earl Siward, even though he died in 1055. It is conceivable that Waltheof held these estates in 1066, but more likely that they were comital manors which had been ring-fenced and were being farmed for King Edward or the earl of Northumbria at that date. Second, the Cambridgeshire Domesday attributes estates worth about £58 to Earl Ælfgar, who died in c. 1062. It is not clear who succeeded him in office there, but there are grounds for thinking that Cambridgeshire formed part of Waltheof’s command at some stage in his career, possibly before 1066, so it is possible that Waltheof enjoyed the income from these estates at that date. Third, Domesday fails to name the TRE holders of a significant number of the estates held by Countess Judith in 1086. Where her antecessors are named, the great majority were held by Earl Waltheof himself or his men TRE; it is therefore probable that this was also the case for those estates where her antecessors are not identified. The estates in question were worth a total of about £97 TRE, and lay principally in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – both in circuit IV, whose record of TRE landholdings is in general patchy (see below).

The structure of Domesday Book with its theoretical census dates of 1066 and 1086 makes it impossible estimate the extent of Waltheof’s holdings between the Conquest and his death with any precision. However, a few entries demonstrate that Waltheof did acquire land in the east Midlands, which had presumably been forfeited by Englishmen between these dates. These are important, because they add to the relatively small but important corpus of royal grants which can be securely dated to the period before 1075.

The Leicestershire folios refer to two estates which were held by a certain Swein TRE, and which are described as being part the holding (feudum) of Earl Waltheof (GDB 233a (Leicestershire 13:67)). The Bedfordshire folios record that Earl Waltheof and Countess Judith granted to Bury St Edmunds three hides and three virgates at Chenemondewiche (unidentified in Biggleswade hundred) which had been held by two sokemen TRE (GDB 201v (Bedfordshire 6:2)). Two entries in the Huntingshire clamores refer to grants made by King William to Earl Waltheof. In one of these, the jurors ‘bear witness that the land of Hungifu and Gos was under the hand of King Edward on the day when he was alive and dead, and that they held of him, not of the earl; but [the jurors] say they had heard that King William should have given it to Waltheof (debuerit eam dare Walleuo)’ (GDB 208 (Huntingdonshire D:3)). The corresponding entry in the main text of the Huntingdonshire folios records that Hungifu and Gos held sixteen houses in the borough of Huntingdon with sake and soke and toll and team, and that Countess Judith held these in 1086 (GDB 203 (Huntingdonshire B:14)). Another Huntingdonshire clamores entry records that Wulfwine (Cild) had one hide at Little Catworth over which King Edward always had sake and soke but which he could alienate to whom he wished; and that, according to the men of Countess Judith, ‘the king gave the land to Earl Waltheof’ (GDB 208 (Huntingdonshire D:18)).

Further entries in the Huntingdonshire Domesday, which happen to be illuminated by information drawn from other sources, reveal how Earl Waltheof and Countess Judith obtained estates held by a substantial landholder named Thorkil TRE. The entry for Conington records that Thorkil held nine hides there and that Judith held in 1086; it also records that six of these hides belonged to Thorney Abbey, and that Thorkil held them from the abbot for a payment (karitatem), though the men of the hundred did not know how much this was (GDB 206v (Huntingdonshire 20:1)). An entry relating to the same property in the Huntingdonshire clamores adds further information. The jurors ‘stated that they had heard that they had formerly belonged to the Church of Thorney, and that they had been granted to Thorkil on such a condition that after his death they ought to return to the church with the other 3 hides of the same vill: this they said that they had heard, but had not seen, nor had they been present’ (GDB 208v (Huntingdonshire D,26)). An entry in the Red Book of Thorney supplies further detail here. This says that Thorkil ‘of Harmewrth’ (recte Harringworth) had leased six hides from Thorney in return for an annual payment of one mark of gold; that he later abandoned his estates and returned to his Danish homeland, whereupon the king gave all his estates to Earl Waltheof; that the monks of Thorney then petitioned Waltheof concerning the six hides at Conington and agreed that he should hold it ‘sicut anteccessor suus Thorkil’, that is from the abbey in return for an annual payment; and that following Waltheof’s, Countess Judith had refused to honour this agreement causing Thorney to lose possession of the estate (; Dugdale 1846: ii. 604; Whitelock 1940: 140-1; Hart 1966: 237;  Scott 187-8). A further entry in the Huntingdonshire folios records that a certain Thorkil danus held fifteen hides at Leighton Bromswold TRE, and that ‘Earl Waltheof gave this manor to St Mary’s of Lincoln’ (GDB 203v (Huntingdonshire 2:8)). In this case, the Domesday evidence is complemented by a writ of King William, which is extant in its original form and records that Earl Waltheof granted the manor of Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire to Remigius, bishop of Lincoln (Bates 1998: no. 177). Domesday Book reveals that Countess Judith held several other estates held by Thorkil TRE: these were worth nearly £50 in total and included Harringworth. It has been suggested that the Thorkil in question was one of the rebels who held out at Ely in 1071 (Williams 1991: 51 n. 28; Clarke 1994: 346-7). It thus emerges that Waltheof acquired the estates of a substantial Huntingdonshire landholder, probably between 1071 and 1075, and that these estates passed to Judith after his death.

It follows that the estates attributes to Countess Judith in 1086 provide some indication of the extent of Waltheof’s holdings after 1066 – not an exact indication, since King William doubtless granted some estates to his niece in her own right before as well as after 1076, but still a useful guide. These estates are mapped and tabulated below, differentiating between four groups of antecessors: the estates held by Waltheof himself, Waltheof’s men, other landholders named or identified in the text, and those whom the text fails to name or identify.

Map of estates attributed to Countess Judith in Domesday Book

The antecessors of Countess Judith

TRE holders

Fiscal assessment

Value TRE £

Value 1086

£

Earl Waltheof (blue)

163

145

218

Earl Waltheof's commended men (red)

16

23

14

Other identified landholders (yellow)

411

457

418

Other unidentified landholders (pink)

97

23

38

Total

687

648

688

It is possible, indeed probable that some of the estates that fall into the last category were held by Earl Waltheof TRE. It is also probable that many, perhaps the majority of all Judith’s estates were held by Waltheof at some stage between 1066 and 1076.

Domesday lordships

Domesday Book permits us to identify about 45 of Waltheof’s commended men: 1 in Bedfordshire, 2 in Buckinghamshire, about 35 in Cambridgeshire, 1 in Hertfordshire, 2 in Huntingdonshire, and 2 in Northamptonshire. The total value of the estates in question was about £95, and was attributed a total assessment of 63 hides or their equivalents. About 26 of his commended men are anonymous free men and sokemen, most of whom possessed modest landholdings; only 3 named individuals held land assessed at five hides or more. The largest estate held by his commendati was 10 hides at Aspley in Bedfordshire held by Leofgifu 11 TRE. In all but two instances where the text makes this distinction, these men are said to have enjoyed the power to alienate their land, which means that they were commended to Waltheof but did not hold their land in dependent tenure from him. About a dozen of these estates passed to Countess in Judith in 1086, but the remainder were scattered among 18 other lords in 1086.

Two entries in the Huntingshire clamores permit us to identify men commended to Waltheof who are not identified as such in the main text. One of these reveals that Godric the priest held one hide at Boughton de Earl Waltheof (GDB 206v (Huntingdonshire 19,31) and 208 (Huntingdonshire D,12). Another observes: ‘Concerning 1.5 hides of land which belonged to Algeat, the jurors say that Algeat himself held them of Earl Tostig, with sake and soke, and afterwards of Waltheof’ (GDB 208 (Huntingdonshire D,11)). The corresponding entry in the main text occurs in the fee of Eustace the sheriff but records that ‘Countess Judith claims this land’ (GDB 206v (Huntingdonshire 19,27)). This is of interest, since it reveals that a man of Earl Tostig switched his allegiance to Waltheof at some stage. Unfortunately it is impossible to determine precisely when this happened: was it when Waltheof obtained his earldom in the early 1060s, after Tostig was exiled in 1065, or after he was killed in 1066?

The structure of Waltheof’s earldom

The size and structure of Midland earldoms were subject to frequent change during the reign of King Edward (see Baxter 2007: 62-71, 302-13; Baxter 2009: maps 1-12). In order to estimate the structure of Waltheof’s earldom in the east Midlands, it is necessary to list what is known about the activities, estates and lordships of Waltheof and other earls who are known to have competed for authority in the region.  The relevant information is summarised below.

(i) Northamptonshire. Domesday Book attributes land in Northamptonshire to five earls TRE – Ralph, Ælfgar, Tostig, Morcar and Waltheof – but Waltheof held more land there than any of his peers in this shire (Ralph and Ælfgar were in any case dead by the mid 1060s). The Northamptonshire Domesday rarely identifies pre-Conquest lordships, but it does record the name of one of Waltheof’s men (GDB 228 (Northamptonshire 53:1)). The fact that Countess Judith received income from the town of Northampton strongly suggests that Waltheof had done so earlier (GDB 219 (Northamptonshire B:38)). An entry in the Black Book of Peterborough Abbey establishes that Waltheof was active in this shire before the Conquest. This records that Earl Siward’s wife, Godgifu, granted estates at Ryhall and Belmesthorpe to Peterborough Abbey; that after hear death, Siward made an agreement with Abbot Leofric of Peterborough to the effect that he should hold estates at Ryhall and Belmesthrope for his life with reversion to the abbey; and that when Siward died, Waltheof purchased the lease of Ryhall but agreed to relinquish control of Belmesthorpe - an agreement he subsequently broke, before eventually granting the reversion of both estates to Peterborough after his lifetime (S 1481; Hart 1966: 107-8). Domesday Book records that both estates were held by Earl Waltheof TRE and by his wife Countess Judith in 1086, without mentioning Peterborough’s claim (GDB 228 (Northamptonshire 56:1-6). Orderic says that King William gave him the comitatus of Northampton when they were reconciled in 1070, but it may have represented the restoration of his authority there, not a new grant (Chibnall 1969-80: 262).

(ii) Huntingdonshire. Domesday Book attributes land in Northamptonshire to earls Harold, Ælfgar, Tostig, and Waltheof TRE. Of these, Waltheof held the smallest amount of land (a single estate worth £2). However, Ælfgar died in c. 1062 and it is not known who enjoyed the income from the estates attributed to him between then and 1066. Earl Siward held property in the town of Huntingdon which was held by Countess Judith in 1086 (GDB 203 (Huntingdonshire B,5)). Waltheof is the only earl other than Tostig known to have attracted commended men into his lordship TRE in this shire; and we have seen, Tostig’s man Algeat held first from Tostig ‘and afterwards of Waltheof’ (GDB 208 (Huntingdonshire D,11)). An early twelfth-century Crowland text, the Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis, styles Waltheof ‘comes Norhamtonie et Huntedonie’ (Michel 1936-40: vol. ii, 99).

(iii) Leicestershire. Waltheof held less land than earls Harold, Morcar, and Ralph in Leicestershire TRE, but of these only Morcar and Waltheof can have held office there in the mid 1060s.

(iv) Cambridgeshire. This shire is known to have been appended to the earldom of East Anglia under earls Harold and Ælfgar. Gyrth controlled the earldom of East Anglia between c. 1057 and 1066. All three of them held land in Cambridgeshire TRE, whereas Waltheof did not. All four earls attracted commendations in the shire. In the twelfth century, the earls of Huntingdon enjoyed revenues from the town of Cambridge (Scott 1052: 162).

(v) Bedfordshire. Earls Tostig and Gyrth held land in Bedfordshire TRE, whereas Waltheof did not; all three attracted commendations in the shire. Bedfordshire formed part of the earldom of Huntingdon in the twelfth century, and Waltheof’s kinsmen and successors are known to have enjoyed income, sometimes specified as the earl’s third penny, from Bedford (Fowler 1925: nos. 5, 6 and 8; Scott 1952: 161-2).

This is difficult evidence to interpret, and relates to what was evidently a fast-moving situation. However, the balance of evidence suggests that Waltheof’s pre-Conquest command consisted of Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire; that Leicestershire formed part of Morcar’s command in 1066 (and was presumably part of Tostig’s command 1065); and that Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire formed part of Gyrth’s command before 1066. Waltheof’s earldom in the east Midlands under William the Conqueror probably comprised all five shires at its peak, probably in the early 1070s.

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